Sapphire deposits are found in Eastern Australia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, China, Vietnam, Madagascar, Greenland, East Africa, and in North America in mostly in Montana. Madagascar, Sri Lanka, and Kashmir produce large quantities of fine quality Sapphires for the world market. Sapphires are mined from alluvial deposits or from primary underground workings.
Royal Blue Sapphire and Padparadscha sapphire are very popular and expensive colour varieties in corundum family.
The intense blue of the sapphire is caused by the addition of titanium and iron to the mineral corundum. The best colour for blue Sapphire is called Royal blue. It is a medium to dark tone blue with lots of saturation.
Sapphires can be treated by several methods to enhance and improve their clarity and colour. A common method is done by heating the sapphires in furnaces to temperatures between 500 and 1,850 °C for several hours, or by heating in a nitrogen-deficient atmosphere oven for 1 week or more. Geuda is a form of the mineral corundum. Geuda is found primarily in Sri Lanka. It’s a semitransparent and milky appearance due to rutile inclusions. Geuda is used to improve its colour by heat treatment. Some geuda varieties turn to a blue colour after heat treatments and some turn to red after oxidizing. Also, Kowangu pushparaga turns to yellow sapphire after oxidizing.
Sapphire Crystal system is a Trigonal crystal system with a hexagonal scalenohedral crystal class. Sapphire hardness is 9 according to the Mohs hardness scale with 4.0~4.1 specific gravity.
Refractive index ω =1.768–1.772 nε =1.760–1.763
Solubility = Insoluble
Melting point = 2,030–2,050 °C
Birefringence = 0.008
Pleochroism = Strong
Luster = Vitreous
Sapphire is the birthstone for September and the gem of the 45th anniversary.
Healing Properties of Sapphire
Sapphire releases mental tension, depression, unwanted thoughts, and spiritual confusion. Sapphire is known as a “stone of Wisdom”. It is exceptional for calming and focusing the mind, allowing the release of mental tension and unwanted thoughts. Sapphire is also the best stone for awakening chakras. Dark Blue or Indigo Sapphire stimulates the Third Eye chakra. Blue Sapphire stimulates the Throat Chakra. Green sapphire stimulates Heart Chakra. Black Sapphire stimulates Base Chakra. White sapphire stimulates Crown Chakra. Yellow sapphire stimulates Solar Plexus Chakra.
Blue Sapphire stimulates the Third eye and Throat Chakra ( the voice of the body). Blue crystal energy will unblock and balance the Throat Chakra. blue encourages the power of truth, while lighter shades carry the power of flexibility, relaxation, and balance. Blue Sapphire can free one of mental anxiety, helps make one detached, and protects against envy. Also, It can be worn for good luck and for protection against evil spirits. Since Saturn rules the nervous system, blue sapphires help problems of the nerves-tension and neuroses-diseases caused by an afflicted Saturn. Blue Sapphire generates Saturn energies.
Padparadscha Sapphire honors the higher mind, bringing intuition, clarity, and self-mastery. Padparadscha Sapphires are highly activating and purifying to the Sacral Chakra, or Second Chakra, located below the naval and above the pubic bone at the front of the pelvis. It controls the flow of energy and is the centre of gravity of the body. It is the centre of the Life Force of the body and controls the flow of information from the body to the mind and from the mind to the body. Padparadscha’s pink colour energy also stimulates the Heart Chakra located near the centre of the breastbone.